The R&A and USGA are collaborating on a new World Handicap set to be activated in 2020.  (Getty Images)

New World Handicap System: A positive step for golf, but increased participation unlikely

A new universal golf handicapping system is coming in 2020. It's called the World Handicap System, which is designed to find common ground between the current six handicap systems around the world.

Mainly a joint effort between the Royal & Ancient and United States Golf Association, the new system means that in 2020 your handicap will be able to travel with you all over the world. One world, one handicapping system. If you're a 6-handicap in New Jersey or California, you will be a 6-handicap in Scotland or Australia. It’ll be the same system under the same set of rules of all over the world.

But what are these new handicap rules, and how do they differ from what we currently have? Well, that all depends on where you play most of your golf these days.

Video: Will World Handicap grow the game?

A new world order for handicaps

For U.S. golfers, the differences aren’t that dramatic. For golfers in most of the rest of the world, the new system represents a more dramatic change.

Here’s a rundown of the new World Handicap System, according to a recent article published by the R&A:

  • Flexibility in formats of play, allowing both competitive and recreational rounds to count for handicap purposes and ensuring a golfer’s handicap is more reflective of potential ability
  • A recommendation that the number of scores needed to obtain a new handicap be 54 holes from any combination of 18-hole and nine-hole rounds, but with some discretion available for handicapping authorities or National Associations to set a different minimum within their own jurisdiction
  • A consistent handicap that is portable from course to course and country to country through worldwide use of the USGA Course and Slope Rating System, already successfully used in more than 80 countries
  • An average-based calculation of a handicap, taken from the best eight out of the last 20 scores and factoring in memory of previous demonstrated ability for better responsiveness and control
  • A calculation that considers the impact that abnormal course and weather conditions might have on a player's performance each day
  • Daily handicap revisions, taking account of the course and weather conditions calculation
  • A limit of Net Double Bogey on the maximum hole score (for handicapping purposes only)
  • A maximum handicap limit of 54.0, regardless of gender, to encourage more golfers to measure and track their performance to increase their enjoyment of the game

54 max handicap seems a bit high

One major difference in the new system for all golfers is the maximum handicap being raised from 36 to 54. The concept here is to encourage players who previously didn’t think they were good enough to have a handicap to register and establish one. The bodies of golf believe that the more people who have handicaps, the better. And the idea of handicaps is so golfers of all abilities can compete against and play with one another.

I would hope the idea of making the max that high is simply so a beginner can track his or her progress. A 10-handicapper playing against someone getting 54 strokes means that if the 54-handicapper manages to shoot 115 (which wouldn’t be difficult for a beginner who improves after a few months of play), the 10-handicapper would have to record a gross score 71 to tie that player. Which one of these scenarios is more likely?

And will raising the maximum handicap to 54 really encourage that many more players to sign up if they’re not in it to sandbag? I can't imagine many golfers who would want to be labeled at -50 or higher, no matter what their ability. I’m guessing if your average score is 130-plus, you probably want to keep on that on the lowdown. And most of the people I know who would fit into this category simply don't keep score. It's too embarrassing.

My Golf Advisor colleague Tim Gavrich agrees that while standardizing the handicap system throughout the world is probably beneficial, he doubts that it will encourage more players to sign up.

"It doesn’t seem to address two key barriers that keep players from establishing a handicap: a relative disregard for competitive play and cost," Gavrich says. "Establishing a handicap costs about the same as a dozen middle-grade golf balls, and millions of golfers are content to play whatever they find in the woods or nearest pond. The long-overdue streamlining of the handicap system is not going to inspire these golfers to suddenly keep a handicap."

The weather factor might be sticky

The other big difference is this whole concept of adjusting for weather. Gavrich thinks this could be a slippery slope, and I agree.

"It seems like the introduction of a weather calculation opens up a can of worms whereby golf's governing bodies are going to try their darnedest to quantify the unquantifiable," Gavrich says. “If Player A plays Course X in the morning under calm conditions and then Player B plays in the afternoon while some rain and wind move in, does that mean both players have played two different golf courses? If not, will the algorithm choose Player A's benign conditions or Player B's? This seems to be an attempt to eliminate a form of 'rub of the green' that is guaranteed to shortchange some players and unfairly advantage others every single day."

Indeed, how do you quantify adjusting for weather? Can it be too cold as well as too hot? I would guess rainfall would be a factor, but wind seems the be the biggest variable when it comes to scoring. This seems pretty difficult to regulate, and who makes these determinations?

Changes more dramatic for R&A golfers

As for golfers who currently have handicaps in the U.K. and other parts of Europe, the first bullet point represents a huge difference in the current system and the new system. Handicaps in the U.K. and Ireland are much more complicated than they are in the United States, but the bottom line is they are based more on tournament golf rather than casual golf and they usually only report two or three scores a year.

In fact, most of the casual play in Great Britain and Ireland is match play or foursomes (alternate shot) anyway, so those rounds typically don't count. This is one of the reasons that players in Scotland, for example, play rounds closer to three hours while U.S. rounds typically average 4 ½ hours. You have to wonder if this new system might slow down pace of play in the U.K., for example.

By the way, if you’re a 6-handicap from the United States and you go over to Scotland and play a 6-handicap there, you’re at a distinct disadvantage. Because someone who has a 6-handicap established in tournament play is usually going to be significantly better than a golfer who is a 6 handicap in casual rounds. Plus, often those rounds in Great Britain or Scotland are played in less than ideal weather conditions, which also makes that six handicap more impressive.

Maybe there should be two handicap systems

The new World Handicap System (like the current USGA system) is designed to calculate potential; that’s why it uses the best 8 of the last 20 scores, and double net bogey is the max players can count for handicapping purposes.

But it really doesn’t prevent sandbagging. And it doesn't prevent vanity handicaps either, (which for some reason irritates me even more). I mean, under the current system, you can report whatever scores you want to fit your agenda. Nobody really verifies what you report. Yes, I think most golfers make some attempt to be honest, but we all know sandbaggers and players who claim to be single digit handicaps who can’t break 90.

Also, most golfers really don’t adhere to the Rules of Golf when playing casual golf, which is why I think there should be two different systems. One handicap system for tournament players that would supersede all other handicapping systems, and one that’s merely an average of your scores. The latter wouldn’t be allowed for tournaments, which is fine since most golfers don’t play in official events anyway (scrambles do not count). But a casual handicap would still be good for setting up games or even providing proof of minimum ability to play difficult courses (which is already the case at many courses in the United Kingdom and should be required at some U.S. courses like Bethpage Black and many Pete Dye designs).

Still, the World Golf Handicap is a positive step, but it doesn't do enough. The world is definitely getting smaller, and more and more golfers like to take their games to all corners of it. It would be nice if we all spoke the same language -- golf handicap-wise --- and the new WHS at least does that.

Feb 21, 2018

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Dick Thompson's avatar
Dick Thompson wrote at 2018-06-23 15:16:05+00:00:

How is, " factoring in memory of previous demonstrated ability for better responsiveness and control," handled mathematically? Pretty nebulous as stated. Too late now, but wouldn't it have been better to use statistics and probability to calculate a score which someone has a 20% chance (the present target) of beating? You know, bell curves, standard deviation and all. This would be based on all scores, The average of your 8 best rounds is just an estimation trying to accomplish the same thing. That would also take care of your 54 handicapper shooting a 115 scenario, since presumably his bell curve would be much wider.

Ralph Wagner 's avatar
Ralph Wagner wrote at 2018-06-23 13:57:54+00:00:

The discussion regarding the 10 handicapper vs the 54 handicappers doesn’t sound logical. While a 54 could shoot 115, it’s not probable. If the 54 handicapper has improved to be shooting 115 on a regular basis the daily revision of handicaps should have already reduced the 54 particularly with using only the best 8 scores in the calculations.

John Ward 's avatar
John Ward wrote at 2018-06-23 13:22:12+00:00:

Leave the system as it currently is

As an aside , anyone who shoots 130 will not play the game if it doesn’t improve

Robin Prescott's avatar
Robin Prescott wrote at 2018-06-23 11:45:03+00:00:

I need to bring Mike Bailey up to date with golf in Scotland. Apparently, we only report 2 to 3 scores per year. In fact, if we report 2 or less, the handicap lapses. My club has, perhaps, more competitions than many others but I expect to play over 40 competitive rounds at my home club that will count for handicap this year. As for foursomes, this may still be popular in traditional clubs such as Muirfield, but elsewhere it is rarely used for bounce games and most clubs will have just the occasional foursomes competition. An advantage of the current handicap system here is that you are effectively forced to decide in advance whether your round will count for handicap by the act of taking part in a competition. There is no option to cheat the system in either direction by putting in scores that fit your purposes. On the other hand, I am looking forward to seeing the slope system in operation here as a six handicapper at a difficult course in Scotland will be a better player than a six handicapper at an easy course.

George Gordon's avatar
George Gordon wrote at 2018-06-23 08:11:47+00:00:

The changes are worth trying. However, four balls are often frowned upon for medal rounds. How are those of us who like that format regularly going to be accepted when speeding up play in competitions is one of the aims?

James Glenn's avatar
James Glenn wrote at 2018-06-23 02:22:07+00:00:

I have an issue with taking the best 8 of the last 20 scores as an average for your handicap. You should take the average of the last 20 scores. Why only the best? I know the USGA system currently takes the best 10 of the last 20 and then adjusts handicaps downward if someone has a great score in one tournament. This defeats the purpose of the handicap system by giving an advantage to low handicap golfers who are much more consistent in their game.

James Glenn's avatar
James Glenn wrote at 2018-06-23 02:12:01+00:00:

I don't understand the limit of net double bogey on the maximum score. Does this mean that for handicap purposes, you cannot score any hole greater than 7 when putting scores into the GHIN system? So that the maximum score for 18 holes would be 126? Elaborate.

Kevin's avatar
Kevin wrote at 2018-06-23 01:01:01+00:00:

It’s too easy to play and not post a score. I’ve played for 40 years at public, semi-private, and private courses where there are plenty of people who don’t post a score every time they play. I’ve known sandbaggers who don’t post their low rounds and reverse baggers that don’t post their high rounds and even players that adjust some holes because of mulligans. How will the new system stop this?

Doc's avatar
Doc wrote at 2018-06-23 00:14:19+00:00:

Whatever. Does everything have to be "global"? More emphasis should be on getting people started in golf with rules knowledge, etiquette and basic skills. Us that attempt to play the game by the rules and try to improve would appreciate other players that aren't there to drink, play obnoxious loud music and retry shots until they get one they like while we wait and wait and wait.

amishboy51's avatar
amishboy51 wrote at 2018-06-22 23:38:08+00:00:

Sorry if this is somewhat off=topic, but I wish the USGA would rescind the rule prohibiting the posting of scores from solo rounds. If you're going to cheat, playing with someone else is not a deterrent. Other than match play tournaments, players don't track other players' shots on a hole, in my experience; neither do they know what scores other players actually post. Finally, the rule is premised on players belonging to the same club, and thus know each other; it's completely irrelevant when considering public golf courses, when you might be joined with a complete stranger. If your posted score is questionable, does someone (the USGA? a club pro?) intend to figure out (from pro shop receipts?) who was the stranger you played with, and contact them to confirm your posted score? Complete nonsense [sorry for my rant!].

Mae N.'s avatar
Mae N. wrote at 2018-03-02 20:11:43+00:00:

I've noticed that even between courses within California and those out of state, slope ratings are not standardized. Another wrinkle to handicapping?

Dean's avatar
Dean wrote at 2018-02-27 21:06:47+00:00:

Additionally, the "double net bogey" calculation should be adjusted upwards to allow for "a maximum of double net bogey plus a maximum of two penalty strokes (if incurred)" while playing a hole. This would create a more even playing field for lower handicappers with inconsistent golf games (prone to incurring penalty strokes).

JohnA's avatar
JohnA wrote at 2018-02-27 16:19:47+00:00:

I'm sure that the motives are good for this change, but I see so many things about it that remind me of that old saying that a camel is a horse designed by a committee. The idea that all these new rules are going to encourage beginning golfers to have handicaps is I think overly optimistic. As Mike Bailey very adequately points out, people with very high handicaps aren't really that interested in reporting that fact. I think 36 is plenty high. If they really feel that a higher number is needed, make it 40 or 42. And then they are going to add another layer of complexity for those of us who now do keep accurate handicaps. Under the new rules we will have to figure out what handicap that hole is where I made the snowman, rather than just record a double bogey. Are you kidding me? That is supposed to be an improvement? This silliness is going to grow the game? I can't help but say it again....are you kidding me? Nothing wrong with making changes to make the handicaps universal, but please, give this mess some more thought. This is going to work about as well as liberals' plans for the economy!

MikeBaileyGA's avatar
MikeBaileyGA Staff wrote at 2018-02-27 15:48:13+00:00:

The double net bogey max would be in effect with the new handicap system, which would also increase the overall handicap limit to 54.0. But even under the current USGA handicap system, most players (double digit) can take a triple bogey max on most holes.

raj's avatar
raj wrote at 2018-02-27 15:22:58+00:00:

I thought the max score for handicap entry was double bogey without regard. What is 'double net bogey'? If a persons handicap is 36 (they get 2 strokes a hole) they can post no more than triple bogey any hole? Does this not disadvantage a person who has a tendency to blow up (10 or 12) on a few holes?

KH's avatar
KH wrote at 2018-02-27 16:33:45+00:00:

It’s net Double bogie. That means you can take 2 more than net par. A 36 could therefore take a gross quadruple boogie, or 4 shots over par. 2 over would be his net par, +2 more for his net double bogie

NG's avatar
NG wrote at 2018-02-27 14:40:55+00:00:

I agree on the idea having two handicaps also, and I think if people in US started playing more stableford games this will speed up play as my experience playing in the States is beer drinking and sitting around waiting to hit your next shot. If you can't score you just pick up and move to next hole. The other point I would like to put forward is if the R&A & USGA would fund the local pros more so they can setup clinics and group lessons for those who new to game without charge we all be happy on the course.

Marv's avatar
Marv wrote at 2018-02-23 15:00:37+00:00:

I also agree with the a tournament versus casual play handicap. When I and my friends play casual golf on trips we adjust handicaps for our purposes and fairness and it usually works well. We also adjust rules a bit to speed play and for conditions. There are two other areas that I really believe need to be emphasized much stronger in golf to help the game. Both have been touched on in the past with campaigns, but then seem to have been dropped. One is tee it forward. My wife and I play in Phoenix on many different courses with people we have never met previously. So many guys play well back of where I play and can’t break a 100 or 90. I moved forward a few years ago and I am scoring better and having much more fun. Second, we need to continue or get back to teaching things that speed the game. It’s not hurrying shots, but rather between shots. I see so many players hit a tee shot and then walk to the cart grab a head cover, put it back on and put the club in the bag. Just leave the driver head cover off, don’t put it in the bag. Get in the cart with the club, carry it to your next shot and put it away and get the next club out at the same time. Do this always. Leave a green with putter in hand, put the putter away and grab the driver at the next tee. Micheal Breed talked about this once on the golf channel. Play ready golf. Get ready to play while your partners are playing. All of this can easily take a half hour or more off a round, if the group in front does the same thing. These things all help make playing more fun. Bob below has it right.

Messens's avatar
Messens wrote at 2018-02-23 12:26:13+00:00:

I agree with the handicap system for tournament play and one for casual play. But if you want to grow the game, you need to make golf more accessible by teaching the basics of the game. Golf in not an easy game. Too often, we see golfers tee it up and never had a lesson. Is it because it's too expensive, which I hear a lot, then we must find a way to overcome that obstacle. I for one, would encourage group lessons at your local golf course / practice range. It would definitely be a first step in the right direction.

Bob's avatar
Bob wrote at 2018-02-23 06:46:57+00:00:

Call me crazy, but If I was the USGA I would be more concerned about making the game fun. We have an aging golfing population in the U.S. and those coming behind us aren't that interested in 4 1/2 to 5 1/2 hour rounds. A serious program of teeing it forward needs to be undertaken, immediately to hold onto those playing now and to attract the young and ladies in their forties & fifties to try the game. Golf courses need to create new tee boxes in the 3500 yard range, 4000 yard range & 4500 yard range so that super seniors, youngsters & beginning ladies can enjoy the game. I've seen to many players hit driver, 3 wood and still have to chip, to a par four. If you want to make it fun, speed up play and gain golfers, then play it way forward. Who doesn't like to get a birdie or two during a round. And, do it all in less than 4 hours.

SC's avatar
SC wrote at 2018-02-21 21:43:59+00:00:

Maybe scores should be witnessed by 2 other players. In order to post a score to players / witnesses needed to vaified posted score.

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Mike Bailey

Senior Staff Writer

Mike Bailey is a senior staff writer based in Houston. Focusing primarily on golf in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean and Latin America with an occasional trio to Europe and beyond, he contributes course reviews, travel stories and features as well as the occasional equipment review. An award-winning writer and past president of Texas Golf Writers Association, he has more than 25 years in the golf industry. Before accepting his current position in 2008, he was on staff at PGA Magazine, The Golfweek Group and AvidGolfer Magazine. Follow Mike on Twitter at @MikeBaileyGA and Instagram at @MikeStefanBailey.